Charles Babbage, considered the first computer pioneer, designed the first automatic computing engine called the Analytical Engine in 1834. The machine had all the main characteristics that a computer has today.
For other milestones in “computor” development, see:
Source: “Charles Babbage,” Science Museum of London, http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/onlinestuff/stories/babbage.aspx (accessed September 17, 2011).
Image Source: “Babbage’s Analytical Engine,” Science Museum, http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/images/object_images/277×265/10297676.jpg (accessed September 21, 2011).
Image Source: “Charles Babbage, 1792-1871,” Library of Congress, 1871, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3b10000/3b13000/3b13500/3b13540r.jpg (accessed December 13, 2011).