“Freedom’s Journal” published in New York by John Russwurm and Samuel Cornish became the first African-American newspaper in America. The paper consisted of four pages and the motto was “Righteousness Exalteth a Nation”. It was superseded by “The Rights of All” also published by Cornish.
Source: JacquelineBacon, The First African-American Newspaper: Freedom’s Journal (Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 39.
New journalism is a term given to a style of journalism starting with the publication of “In Cold Blood” (1959) by Truman Capote. Other notable writers in this category include: Norman Mailer and Hunter S. Thompson. The difference that marked this new form of journalism is that it was seldom found in newspapers but it was being published in magazines like “The New Yorker“, “The Atlantic Monthly“, and “Harper’s“. The idea behind this movement was to borrow from fiction to sensationalize or embellish actual events.
The Opera browser was conceptualized by two Norwegian Telecom Research employees in 1994, and development was completed by 1997, when the first Opera browser was released. Although slow to become popular, Opera was early on recognized for its usability. By October of 2001, Opera 5 had reached 5 million downloads, and is today a popular computer and mobile browser.
Internet Explorer is Microsoft’s native browser, the first iteration of which was released in August 1995 as The Internet Jumpstart Kit for Microsoft Plus! with Windows 95. Updates and new versions of Internet Explorer came in rapid succession, with IE 2 coming out later in 1995 and others following quickly, so that by 2001 six versions of Internet Explorer had been released. Internet Explorer became popular almost immediately and remained a popular browser; within one week of the release of Internet Explorer 3 in 1996, one million copies had been downloaded. New versions continue to be released, and Internet Explorer continues to be among the most popular web browsers.
Netscape was founded in 1994 by Jim Clark of Silicon Graphics and Marc Andreessen of Mosaic, and its browsers became incredibly popular almost immediately after becoming available in August 1995, until by mid-1996, 92% of Fortune 100 companies were using Netscape products in their organizations. Although Netscape’s original efforts eventually failed, the company’s flexibility meant that in that time Netscape had made several products, not only internet browsers but also other online products such as e-mail servers, each geared towards changing public demands. Although the Netscape browser eventually faded almost entirely into oblivion, its flexibility became a keystone of successful technology businesses.
Source: Michael A. Cusumano and David Yoffie, Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape and its Battle with Microsoft (New York: The Free Press, 1998),337-340, http://books.google.com (accessed September 20, 2011).
Source: William Forbes, Behavioural Finance ( Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2009), http://books.google.com (accessed September 20, 2011).
Daytime serials and most other major radio network entertainment programs are ended in 1960. A drop in audience numbers made continuing serials economically unfeasible. Only music and news shows remainEd.
Exact month and date unknown.
Source: Christopher H. Sterling and John Michael Kittross, Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2002), 758.
The “Monitor” was a program that radically changed the way radio was used. The show offered a mix of news, sports, comedy, music, celebrity interviews and other things, which made it possible for someone to tune in at random and still be able to follow the show. The rapid ‘news bite’ format was revolutionary. The show the Monitor lasted until 1975. Dave Garroway reading for the “Monitor”.
Source: Christopher H. Sterling and John Michael Kittross, Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting (Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2002), 758.
Orson Welles directed and lead the reading of what is, quite possibly, the most famous radio broadcast in history. Set up to mimic newS bulletins, the broadcast described the alien invasion as depicted in the War of the Worlds novel by H. G. Wells. The show broadcast was very realistic, and succeeded in scaring a significant number of people.
Timothy Berners-Lee and Robert Caillau, both employees at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, collaborated on a project in late 1990 that would become WorldWideWeb, the first internet interface. Berners-Lee and Caillau’s invention eventually became synonymous with the internet itself, necessitating the renaming of WorldWideWeb to Nexus. Although a graphical interface, WorldWideWeb would not qualify as an internet browser.
Source: DieterFensel, Mick Kerrigan, and Michal Zaremba, Implementing Semantic Web Services: The Sesa Framework, (Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008), 4.
Image Source: “World Wide Web,” Messiah College, http://home.messiah.edu/~mm1397/WorldWideWeb.jpg (accessed December 14, 2011).